The building itself, which we think of as unchanged programme doptions binaires swiss guard if was originally built, would be scarcely recognizable.
We would find if festooned with tapestries radically altering the sound and resonancerichly furnished, decorated with gilt and brocade, all combining to conceal beneath a much more "baroque" atmosphere than the one we know today, the fundamental austerity of the church's Gothic architecture. The interior of the church would be thronged with a diverse crowd of people : priests, deacons, clerics, laymen, bell-ringers, Swiss guards, verger, and organist.
In those days the demands imposed by religious ritual were unbelievably complicated. Religion at the time was highly ceremonial; we have no equivalent today, even in Rome. We would have to go to certain eastern European churches, in Poland or orthodox Russia on major religious holidays, to witness a similar spectacle in our own time.
Only in countries where the liturgical tradition is still dominant and where religious services require a meticulous ritual carried out by teams of priests, acolytes, deacons and subdeacons all clothed in programme doptions binaires swiss guard brocade and manipulating objects made of gold and precious metals gleaming in the candlelight and haze of the incense can we appreciate what our own churches must have been like in the past.
Our trip in the time machine would be even more startling if it landed us back in the 18th century on a major religious holiday. A theatre in the literal sense of the word : sermons in those days were delivered from the pulpit by priests who were like sacred options binaires comment trader de manière rentable, thundering, intoning, holding their listeners spellbound with their drama and eloquence.
Does this sound like she's referring to a priest In those days, a priest was a great tragedian, and every sermon was a work of drama But the surprises in store for us would not stop at the sumptuous surroundings and dramatic performance in the pulpit. Even the music would surprise us.
First, because the great French motet we have grown familiar with was not by any means the sole musical form employed in the 18th century French church. The Gallican liturgy was much closer to its ancient roots than we imagine today. What we call Gregorian chant was still predominant, but it was a Gregorian chant without the angelic quality it acquired in the 19th century, at Solesmes, through Dom Guéranger and Dom Pothier : a Gregorian chant that had been worked over by many hands through the ages until it, too, had become theatre, high drama Tradition also specified where the fugue, the recitativo, the full organ and free pieces should occur.
Lastly, the prevailing "French" style also placed different musical configurations in conjunction with specific parts of the various instruments : fugues were played on reed stops, recitativos were given to the cromorne or trumpet stop, usually in the "tenor", with the bass reed stop inevitably taking over the middle of the Gloria.
The amazing aspect of this short collection is the composer's mastery of his craft, and also the young man's authority in assuming an entire musical tradition, purifying and renewing it without betraying it, varying it without reducing or attenuating it. It was composed for a large organ with multiple voices and double pedal. The Parish Mass thus does not exhibit unity of key, but Couperin made up for this by giving it a subtle unity based on thematic recurrences expressed through a variety of registers, musical lines, and compositional devices.
It is hard to know which we should admire most, this sublime unity, or the extraordinary variety of the sections; the strict counterpoint of the great full organ passages scintillating with their tenor or bass stops, spinning out the Cantus Firmus, or the lighter dialogues between voices, sometimes moved by a rhythm that is almost choreographic, or, again, the unforgettable recitativos in thirds with trumpet and cromorne in which Couperin becomes a poet : a lyric poet.
Its dimensions are reduced and it does not programme doptions binaires swiss guard a large instrument. Curiously, there is no liturgical plain chant in it at all.
It is likely that in convents and monasteries the directives of the archdiocese of Paris did not have to be applied with the same strictness. Also, the convents of the time, la Visititation,le Val-de-Grâce which were frequented by the Queen, and l'Oratoire, where people went to hear good sermons, were not always as strict as the conception we have today of the religious life.
The music for this second mass has something more agreeable about it, more relaxed, almost worldly. This does not in any way imply that the mass is more superficial, however. Il follows exactly the same plan as the first, with the stops out in the same spots, fugues on the reed stops, duos and trios with a lighter touch, occasionally looking forward to the composition of certain two or three voiced motets.
The luxury of the accoutrements, the sonority of the great organs and the architectural proportions of the religious edifices of the time are still with us today, tangible evidence of a highly coloured past. In this context, plain chant was no laggard, and formed an integral part of the dazzling harmony of the whole.
Controversy raged during the 17th century regarding the proper way Gregorian chant should be performed. The extreme position was held by some Benedictines who reacted against the tradition of ornamentation for Gregorian chant.
Farewell to a Swiss Guard who served three popes: his last interview
Harking back to a mythic antiquity, they advocated an even, unornamented line, in which each note would be held for the same length of time, since, in their words, "this is the essence of plain-chant".
These theoreticians emerged during a period when Gregorian chant was still infused with a tradition of ornamentation which had been transmitted virtually unchanged from Carolingian times.
Я проведу твоего робота к Сенаторам. Мир пол ними продолжал свое бесконечное вращение. -- Но ведь подземка закрыта с обоих концов. - После того как мы войдем в экспозицию, - ответил Орел.
Some commentators, however, such as Dom Jumilhac, Dom Le Clerc, and even Guillaume Gabriel Nivers although the latter's attitude is not wholly clearclaimed that the ornamentation enriching plain chant was a recent addition, a profanation, an intrusion of "modern times" programme doptions binaires swiss guard religious music.
It was during this period that the myth of "pure" music began to grow. This concept, still current today among certain musicians, holds that the older music is, the more basic and pure i.
And yet over this sophism took hold. The final blow came in the 20th century when the Catholic world had the aesthetic advocated by the Abbaye de Solesmes movement imposed upon it. At the same time, however, the choristers who practiced the art of Programme doptions binaires swiss guard chant ornamentation were the repositories of an ancient tradition that can be easily traced all the way back to Carolingian times.
It is surprising to note that a historical fact of such crucial importance should have escaped virtually all commentators on Gregorian chant. These ornaments are clearly evident in the manuscripts of the first 10th and 11th century neumes.
François Couperin - The Masses on French Baroques Organs (Messe des Paroisses - Messe des Couvents)
The first tablatures giving a name to these neumatic forms, which apparently had previously existed unnamed, appeared in the 12th century. The etymology of the words used to designate these ornamental neumes leaves no doubt as to their function pes quassus, pes stratus, pressus, quilisma. Exact descriptions of how these neumes should be interpreted were written in the 13th and 14th centuries by many different theoreticians : Anonymous lV, Walter Odington, Engelbert d'Admont, and especially Jérôme de Moravia and the anonymous author of the "Quattuor principalia".
François de la Feillée was one of the last authors to describe plain chant ornamentation. It is significant and striking to note the similarity of his descriptions with those of medieval writers. He published his treatise in Almost a century later, ina group of musicians who realized a tradition was dying out decided to re-edit François de la Feillée's treatise. Thus the ornamental tradition survived until the middle of the 19th century, but it was eventually submerged by the determination of certain Benedictines to recover "the ancient purity".
Naturally this art of programme doptions binaires swiss guard was subjected to various modifications over the centuries, not so much in terms of form as in the spirit and manner in which it was used. François de la Feillée, for example, advocates programme doptions binaires swiss guard the ornamentation to conform with the expression to be given to the text. Although this principle has always existed, it is possible to endow it with a baroque feeling by drawing on the expressive methods used in musical compositions of that period.
The record opens with a remarkable Easter introit, "Christus resurrexit a mortuis". Here we have a typical example of "musical plain chant", the name given to the entire liturgical repertoire composed during the 17th and 18th centuries. In this instance it is sung using the "book-chant" technique, i.
Book-chant requires much knowledge, much practice and a very good ear in those who perform it, the more so as it is not always easy to transpose plain-chant notes into our own music.
However, there are some church musicians who are so versed in this kind of chant that they can even invent and work out fugues This last sentence of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's may appear surprising, inasmuch as we of the 20th century are so accustomed to thinking of counterpoint and fugue as belonging to the realm of "higher" composition. Today's musicians are so hypnotized by the tyranny of the written note and by musical instruction in which the oral transmission is minimal, they tend to forget the basic principle of their own art : that music is first and foremost an action that engenders a sound.
The "book-chant" tradition was also a very ancient one.
Since comments have already been made in the blogosphere see Hruschka on this blog and Gauci and a comprehensive study on the need to reform the system has been recently released by a member of the Odysseus Network and presented to the LIBE Committee of the European Parliament see Maianithis entry will not provide a general description of the proposal and focus instead on some selected aspects by putting forward some proposals to make the Dublin system less dysfunctional. Despite this, we should not let Dublin become a taboo, impermeable to discussions on its past and current contents.
It appeared over the course of time in many different forms, but the principle always remained the same : improvising the addition of one, two, three, and sometimes even more voices to the main melodic line, without help from a written score. We may thus include under this heading descant, the different types of organum, the faux-bourdon, and certain types of vocal counterpoint.
During the baroque period, book chant could present archaic features from the medieval tradition : parallel chords, fifths, unbridled ornamentation. We can still find examples of this programme doptions binaires swiss guard in the vocal polyphony of Corsica. In the course of our study of book chant, an analysis of the chord sequences in the Corsican polyphonic tradition revealed an "oral style" characteristic of harmonies formed around a single line. Our current thinking on the question may be defined as an attempt to read period documents in the light of the Corsican polyphonic tradition.
The alternatim, or the custom of alternating organ with choir, goes back to a time when the organ was first introduced into western religious music. It was in the 11th century that the organ spread to most of the great abbeys and cathedrals of western Europe. The success of this instrument is explained, not only by people's fascination with the sound it produced, programme doptions binaires swiss guard also by its symbolic power.
Introduced in Europe during the Carolingian renaissance, the organ represented in Byzantium, its place of origin, an attribute of imperial power. In Byzantium, however, the instrument was never used during religious ritual.
Apparently there was a crossover in the West between the imperial and the strictly religious ritual. The marvellous construction of the instrument was ideally suited to celebrating the glory of God. The symbolic attached to the instrument's imperial Byzantine roots faded in the memories of those who heard its music in the West. The organ was increasingly perceived as an instrument which, because of the numerical relationships governing the sounds it produces, represents a material manifestation in the real world of the occult harmonies controlling the world of the invisible.
In this context, it is easy to see how the alternatim developed, and to understand its deeper significance.
The organ was played only on days of solemn ritual. How it was played was governed by strict rules. The organist opened with the music for the ordinary of the mass Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus, Agnus Deiand then alternated with the choir : one verse for the choir, the following one for the organ, and so on.
It was a prayer ritual employed for solemn occasions. Originally, the organist's improvisations were based on the melody, which was supposed to be sung. Played on sustained notes at a tempo twice as slow as the choir's, the organ line immediately transported the celebrants' prayer into another dimension. The voices would fall silent, but everyone knew the words and the organ line by heart.
The extroverted chant became through the medium of the organ the introverted chant of the entire congregation. The organ thus became the vehicle for a ritual incantation. As time passed, the practice of playing the melody for the verses in its entirety became less and less common.
There was a preference for playing a reflective commentary on the sung text, without necessarily using musical quotations from the liturgical melody.
This is the case for François Couperin's Parish Mass, except in the first and last verses of the Kyrie, and the first verses of the Gloria, the Sanctus, and the Agnus, which contain the entire liturgical chant, either in the tenor or the bass, played on sustained notes. With the practice of the alternatim, the organ came into its own : a plaintive, confiding, beseeching and a times a luminous crystallization of a programme doptions binaires swiss guard kind of silence.
The interest of the present restoration is to introduce briefly and tellingly three musical styles that co-existed during the 17th century : book chant, ornamented plain chant, and the current style of the period as it appeared in liturgical verses for the organ.
The comparison is a crucial one, since it gives us an opportunity to acquire a feeling for the roots of baroque music through direct experience.
People during that period were still unwittingly participating in a tradition that was beyond them, but whose antiquity they experienced instinctively.
This living tradition, far from making them sterile, provided a model with which they were completely at home and from which - sometimes working in reaction to it - they drew the energy and foresight necessary for their creative vitality. It is dedicated to reviving the vocal and instrumental art practiced during the various periods of the Middle Ages.
The Ensemble's repertory extends from the earliest known sources Gallican and Carolingian chant, the ancient chants of the Church of Rome to the 15th century. Special emphasis is placed on liturgical chant. Each year, the singers focus on a scholarly program suggested by the research committee of the A. A specific manuscript or certain aspects of a specific repertory are subjected to in-depth study during scholarly sessions held at the Abbaye de Royaumont. The Ensemble is able in this way to enrich its repertory systematically, accurately, and continuously, through contact with the latest advances in musicology.
The results of these scholarly sessions are presented either in the context of concert tours in France and abroad the Ensemble is commissioned by the French Ministry of Cultureor else of special A. The same year he was also named professor of organ at the Belfort Conservatory.
Jean-Charles Ablitzer is an ardent chamber-music performer, and has participated in numerous baroque ensemble concerts and recordings. The high quality of Ablitzer's recordings Bach, Couperin has received ample praise from the critics : "…Playing a superb Catalan instrument with argent rapide dans le monde characteristic Iberian nasality, Ablitzer constructs a glittering monument resounding with vast incandescent figures.
Phrasing, registration, and digital dexterity are stunning. Ablitzer's two recordings of François Couperin Masses were ranked by the monthly review "Le Monde de la Musique" as among the ten best classical recordings of He remembers the lesson this composer learned during his long stay in Vienna, the importance of smooth flow and sunny declamation : here is a recording flooded with just that Viennese spirit…" from a review by Xavier Lacavalerie.
The centuries fall away, the musical themes engage with each other like flashing swords of light…" from a review by Paul Meunier. To the glowing chorales, Monique Zanetti lends her pureness and ecstatic innocence, while Jean-Charles Ablitzer offers glory and enlightenment. On the contrary, he is constantly inspired, proposing innovative solutions with every page. Bach, Organ works in Goslar.
Absorta est mors in victoria, Alleluia. Ubi est mors victoria tua? Ubi est mors stimulus tuus? Alleluia, Alleluia. Gloria Patri et Filio et spiritui sancto, sicut erat in principio, et nunc et semper, et insaecula saeculorum, Amen.
Kyrie Plein chant du premier Kyrie, en taille. Christe eleison.